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Elijah Reed
Elijah Reed

The Commitments

At the World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul in May 2016, 9,000 representatives from Member States, non-governmental organizations, civil society, people affected by crises, the private sector and international organizations came together and made over 3,700 commitments to deliver on the ambitious changes called for in the Agenda for Humanity. At the request of the Secretary-General, the online Platform for Action, Commitments and Transformations (PACT), was created to house the commitments and provide a hub for transparency, mutual accountability and voluntary progress reporting.The PACT currently reflects all the commitments that were received in writing before, during or following the Summit. Two types of commitments were gathered.

The Commitments

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Participants at the Summit were invited to make their own commitments in support of the Agenda for Humanity and its five Core Responsibilities. The commitments could be made individually or together with other stakeholders, and could be advocacy, policy, contribution, partnership, training, operational, capacity or financial in nature. The individual and joint commitments have been classified according to the 5 Core Responsibilities and 24 transformations of the Agenda for Humanity.

At the World Humanitarian Summit, participants attended 7 thematic roundtables focusing on key issues needed to achieve change. For each roundtable, a set of core commitments were developed representing the key components needed to achieve the implementation of the Agenda for Humanity. Participants at the Summit were invited to align themselves with the Core Commitments to show their support for these changes.

Two types of commitments were gathered before and during the Summit. Core commitments were developed ahead of the Summit and reflect the crucial policy and operational steps required to achieve the implementation of the Agenda for Humanity. At the Summit, stakeholders could endorse core commitments by aligning their government or their organization with them.

In addition to the 32 core commitments, stakeholders were invited to make their own commitments, either individually or together with other stakeholders. These individual and joint commitments are intended as tangible actions that support the implementation of a core commitment, or more broadly to help achieve the Agenda for Humanity.

Pursuant to Local Law 175 of 2016, the City is responsible for publishing a list of capital and programmatic commitments associated with neighborhood-scale rezonings, and an annual progress report detailing the status of each initiative. These rezoning commitments are the product of comprehensive and community-driven planning processes in each neighborhood and have been organized by policy domain: Housing; Open Space; Community Resources; Transportation and Infrastructure; and Economic and Workforce Development.

The Bay Street Corridor Neighborhood Plan passed in June 2019. The City will advance neighborhood investments in housing, public space, waterfront, education, transportation, economic development, and infrastructure to improve quality of life for Bay Street Area residents as part of the comprehensive plan for the future of the North Shore. Each year, the Mayor's Office of Operations will publish an update on these initiatives that details the status of these commitments.

The Inwood Neighborhood Plan passed in August 2018. In this plan, a vision was laid out to create and preserve affordable housing in the area, and to plan for vibrant neighborhood growth. Investments in open space, transportation, infrastructure, and education represent a comprehensive approach to the planning process. The goal of the plan is to ensure that Inwood remain an affordable and livable neighborhood for working families and to improve the quality of life for all Inwood residents. Each year, the Mayor's Office of Operations will publish an update on these initiatives that details the status of these commitments.

The Jerome Avenue Neighborhood Plan passed in March 2018. The planning process involved a comprehensive look at the current and future community needs and resulted in a wide range of policy strategies. Housing quality and affordability was a major focus of the plan and key investments and zoning changes should result in a substantial increase in the amount of affordable housing, much of which will remain affordable in perpetuity. The plan as a whole seeks to bring vitality and growth to this vibrant community of the Bronx. Each year, the Mayor's Office of Operations will publish an update on these initiatives that details the status of these commitments.

The Downtown Far Rockaway rezoning, approved in September 2017, was developed as part of a comprehensive community plan to revitalize Downtown Far Rockaway into a vibrant mixed-use center. Community stakeholders included the Downtown Far Rockaway Working Group, first convened in October 2015 by Council Member Donovan Richards, in partnership with the Mayor's Office and multiple City agencies. The plan features a series of commitments to address housing, transportation, economic development, and public space needs in Downtown Far Rockaway. Each year, the Mayor's Office of Operations will publish an update on these initiatives that details the status of these commitments.

The Greater East Midtown Rezoning, approved in August 2017, will foster the new, modern office buildings needed to spur jobs and keep New York a global capital of commerce. The plan ties that growth directly to improvements in the district's public transit and public space, so as new buildings rise, New Yorkers will see major investments in subway stations, less congested sidewalks and expansive plazas for office workers and visitors. The rezoning covers 78 blocks between Third Avenue and Madison Avenue, from East 39th Street to East 57th Street, and includes specific commitments made by the Administration to the New York City Council. Each year, the Mayor's Office of Operations will publish an update on the status of these commitments.

Our regression also includes a measure of expected damages from the impacts of climate change56. Countries vulnerable to higher damages should be more motivated in their ambition to cut pollution and thus to make credible commitments28,29,57,58. Following the rich literature in comparative politics and law6,29,59,60,61,62,63,64 we include measures of the quality of institutions. Looking to the literature on the political economy of energy and industrial policy65,66,67,68,69, we include a measure of the power of the industry most squarely implicated in cutting carbon pollution: fossil fuels. Finally, we control for the type of expert making the assessment, mindful that expertise is domain specific.

3. This document affirms key commitments by DOC and ICANN, including commitments to: (a) ensure that decisions made related to the global technical coordination of the DNS are made in the public interest and are accountable and transparent; (b) preserve the security, stability and resiliency of the DNS; (c) promote competition, consumer trust, and consumer choice in the DNS marketplace; and (d) facilitate international participation in DNS technical coordination.

8. ICANN affirms its commitments to: (a) maintain the capacity and ability to coordinate the Internet DNS at the overall level and to work for the maintenance of a single, interoperable Internet; (b) remain a not for profit corporation, headquartered in the United States of America with offices around the world to meet the needs of a global community; and (c) to operate as a multi-stakeholder, private sector led organization with input from the public, for whose benefit ICANN shall in all events act. ICANN is a private organization and nothing in this Affirmation should be construed as control by any one entity.

9.1 Ensuring accountability, transparency and the interests of global Internet users: ICANN commits to maintain and improve robust mechanisms for public input, accountability, and transparency so as to ensure that the outcomes of its decision-making will reflect the public interest and be accountable to all stakeholders by: (a) continually assessing and improving ICANN Board of Directors (Board) governance which shall include an ongoing evaluation of Board performance, the Board selection process, the extent to which Board composition meets ICANN's present and future needs, and the consideration of an appeal mechanism for Board decisions; (b) assessing the role and effectiveness of the GAC and its interaction with the Board and making recommendations for improvement to ensure effective consideration by ICANN of GAC input on the public policy aspects of the technical coordination of the DNS; (c) continually assessing and improving the processes by which ICANN receives public input (including adequate explanation of decisions taken and the rationale thereof); (d) continually assessing the extent to which ICANN's decisions are embraced, supported and accepted by the public and the Internet community; and (e) assessing the policy development process to facilitate enhanced cross community deliberations, and effective and timely policy development. ICANN will organize a review of its execution of the above commitments no less frequently than every three years, with the first such review concluding no later than December 31, 2010. The review will be performed by volunteer community members and the review team will be constituted and published for public comment, and will include the following (or their designated nominees): the Chair of the GAC, the Chair of the Board of ICANN, the Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information of the DOC, representatives of the relevant ICANN Advisory Committees and Supporting Organizations and independent experts. Composition of the review team will be agreed jointly by the Chair of the GAC (in consultation with GAC members) and the Chair of the Board of ICANN. Resulting recommendations of the reviews will be provided to the Board and posted for public comment. The Board will take action within six months of receipt of the recommendations. Each of the foregoing reviews shall consider the extent to which the assessments and actions undertaken by ICANN have been successful in ensuring that ICANN is acting transparently, is accountable for its decision-making, and acts in the public interest. Integral to the foregoing reviews will be assessments of the extent to which the Board and staff have implemented the recommendations arising out of the other commitment reviews enumerated below. 041b061a72




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